Large-scale CO2 transport will be achieved using pipelines at high pressures and ambient temperatures, with the CO2 in liquid or dense phase. Smaller-scale transport of CO2 may utilise ships or other forms of bulk transport under lower pressure and temperatures.
The thermodynamics properties of CO2 are very different from natural gas, which among other things pose new challenges regarding transient phenomena during e.g. start-up, shutdown, depressurization, varying CO2 supply, or leakages. Further, there will be impurities in the CO2 to a varying degree during the whole CCUS chain from capture to reservoirs. Currently, there are large knowledge gaps regarding thermodynamic properties with impurities present. Hence, better property data are needed in order to find the optimum level of impurities in CCUS systems. Both with regards to transient behaviour and impurity specifications, the interfaces between capture, conditioning, transport, use, injection, and storage requires particular attention.